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Fire safety

Fire Safety

Drainage systems are the arteries of a building.

In case of fire, there is a risk that pipes will maintain and spread the fire in the building. Pipe penetrations through a separating element like a wall or a slab are always a source of risk for the spread of fire to the adjacent room, the floor below or the floor above. As regards a building’s fire safety, the major responsibility rests with the project manager who must comply with local regulations. Accordingly, and particularly in high-risk buildings like high-rise buildings, materials with reduced flammability should be selected as a precautionary measure.


Saint-Gobain PAM Soil & Drain is committed to the development of high-quality and high-safety products. Fire safety is one of the main technical performances of our products. In choosing Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron systems, you are guaranteeing the safety of both people and property.


There are two concepts applied to fire safety: reaction to fire and fire resistance.

 

Drainage systems are the arteries of a building.

In case of fire, there is a risk that pipes will maintain and spread the fire in the building. Pipe penetrations through a separating element like a wall or a slab are always a source of risk for the spread of fire to the adjacent room, the floor below or the floor above. As regards a building’s fire safety, the major responsibility rests with the project manager who must comply with local regulations. Accordingly, and particularly in high-risk buildings like high-rise buildings, materials with reduced flammability should be selected as a precautionary measure.


Saint-Gobain PAM Soil & Drain is committed to the development of high-quality and high-safety products. Fire safety is one of the main technical performances of our products. In choosing Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron systems, you are guaranteeing the safety of both people and property.


There are two concepts applied to fire safety: reaction to fire and fire resistance.

 

Reaction to fire

This is the instant behavior when a fire breaks out, its propensity to ignite or fuel a fire. This behavior is assessed on the basis of standardised tests and described in a Euroclass classification.

The Euroclasses are based on test methods and establish reaction to fire classifications that are harmonised throughout Europe. This means they can be used to compare materials and product performances.

The Euroclass classification ranges from A1 to F, with A1 and A2 being reserved for products that are not, or are only slightly, combustible. The indices s and d respectively refer to smoke emission and the production of flaming droplets.

 

Sub-Class SMOKE production                                       

s1: Low smoke production                                  
s2: Medium smoke production                            
s3: High smoke production                                 

 FLAMING DROPLETS sub-classification

d0: No flaming droplets
d1: Flaming droplets that persist for less than 10 s
d2: Flaming droplets

Reaction to fire

This is the instant behavior when a fire breaks out, its propensity to ignite or fuel a fire. This behavior is assessed on the basis of standardised tests and described in a Euroclass classification.

The Euroclasses are based on test methods and establish reaction to fire classifications that are harmonised throughout Europe. This means they can be used to compare materials and product performances.

The Euroclass classification ranges from A1 to F, with A1 and A2 being reserved for products that are not, or are only slightly, combustible. The indices s and d respectively refer to smoke emission and the production of flaming droplets.

 

Sub-Class SMOKE production                                       

s1: Low smoke production                                  
s2: Medium smoke production                            
s3: High smoke production                                 

 FLAMING DROPLETS sub-classification

d0: No flaming droplets
d1: Flaming droplets that persist for less than 10 s
d2: Flaming droplets

Scope

The CE marking for cast iron wastewater systems is based on the harmonised standard EN 877, which applies to a system including pipes, fittings, couplings and accessories, and is used to test all of the ranges’ components.

The classification obtained by Saint-Gobain PAM covers complete ranges: pipes, fittings, couplings and accessories that are components of a wastewater pipe system.

Check the reaction to fire classification of the products you specify, and ensure the tests were carried out by an accredited testing centre. This compliance is validated by complete quality marks, is periodically tested by accredited third-party laboratories and provides you with a performance guarantee for the systems you specify.

Cast iron remains one of the best materials when it comes to fire safety

Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron systems are among the safest materials on the market in terms of reaction to fire, and all its drainage systems have been tested independently to the stipulated test criteria.


In tests carried out by the CSTB accredited laboratory, the Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron ranges (pipes, fittings and accessories, including elastomer gaskets and coatings) received the following excellent Euroclass ranking: A1 for our standard “S” range and A2-s1, d0 for the “Plus”
range.

 

Consult and download our reaction to fire classification reports

Cast iron remains one of the best materials when it comes to fire safety

Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron systems are among the safest materials on the market in terms of reaction to fire, and all its drainage systems have been tested independently to the stipulated test criteria.


In tests carried out by the CSTB accredited laboratory, the Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron ranges (pipes, fittings and accessories, including elastomer gaskets and coatings) received the following excellent Euroclass ranking: A1 for our standard “S” range and A2-s1, d0 for the “Plus”
range.

 

Consult and download our reaction to fire classification reports

FIRE RESISTANCE

This is a construction component’s ability to withstand fire for a given period of time and to retain its serviceability in the event of fire, avoiding the spread of fire. If a fire breaks out, it is essential to prevent any early collapse of the structure, and then limit the extent of the damage to ensure that occupants can be evacuated and/or belongings will be protected. Many buildings are not sufficiently protected against fire hazards. This means that fire can spread quickly, destroy the building in a short time and, more importantly, endanger the lives of the occupants. When a fire breaks out, the first objective is to slow down its spread both horizontally and vertically.

 

The main causes of fire are :

  • - Faults in electrical systems
  • - Human error
  • - Overheating
  • - Arson
     

Lightning strikes or explosions play a minor role in the statistics here, but can lead to a chain reaction of fires if they do occur (Source: www.ifs-ev.org).

The fire resistance performance level will be influenced by a number of factors: the pipe diameter, the thickness of the floor or wall, the size of the penetration void, the material used to seal the void and even the stack configuration through the penetration.

COMPARTMENTAL PRINCIPLE

When they exist, fire safety regulations for buildings are based on a compartmental principle. Within a building, a compartment is a fire rated space designed to stop the fire for a given period of time. The fire stopping requirement for walls (shells and slabs) is generally 2 hours or less - and exceptionally 4 hours.

The requirement depends on the type of building and its level of occupancy, and can be very different from one country to the next.

COMPARTMENTAL PRINCIPLE

When they exist, fire safety regulations for buildings are based on a compartmental principle. Within a building, a compartment is a fire rated space designed to stop the fire for a given period of time. The fire stopping requirement for walls (shells and slabs) is generally 2 hours or less - and exceptionally 4 hours.

The requirement depends on the type of building and its level of occupancy, and can be very different from one country to the next.

Waste water drainage systems and fire stopping requirements

 

Drainage systems passing through structures designed to withstand fire should not provide open breaches. For a given time, specified in the applicable regulations, they should not allow the passage of fire, smoke, heat or combustion products from one compartment another.

Cast iron, a non-combustible material, has a melting point of over 1000°C. In most cases it requires no additional fire protection.

Saint-Gobain PAM has and will continue to periodically test its cast iron drainage systems with standard mortar penetrations and other solutions in order to understand the potential effects of fire on its integrity, resistance and overall performance. We carried out a non-exhaustive series of tests to offer precise guidance for fire resistance.


Our systems proved to meet integrity and insulation requirements up to 240 minutes (4 hours)*, and should therefore not collapse causing potential danger to evacuating people or firefighters.

We regularly perform new tests. Therefore, if you have any questions our technical team can provide guidance and help you select the right configuration for optimal performance and provide you with a comprehensive report. You can contact our technical support team on our website
 

Waste water drainage systems and fire stopping requirements

 

Drainage systems passing through structures designed to withstand fire should not provide open breaches. For a given time, specified in the applicable regulations, they should not allow the passage of fire, smoke, heat or combustion products from one compartment another.

Cast iron, a non-combustible material, has a melting point of over 1000°C. In most cases it requires no additional fire protection.

Saint-Gobain PAM has and will continue to periodically test its cast iron drainage systems with standard mortar penetrations and other solutions in order to understand the potential effects of fire on its integrity, resistance and overall performance. We carried out a non-exhaustive series of tests to offer precise guidance for fire resistance.


Our systems proved to meet integrity and insulation requirements up to 240 minutes (4 hours)*, and should therefore not collapse causing potential danger to evacuating people or firefighters.

We regularly perform new tests. Therefore, if you have any questions our technical team can provide guidance and help you select the right configuration for optimal performance and provide you with a comprehensive report. You can contact our technical support team on our website
 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER MATERIALS

For plastics, the fire stopping rule consists in “plugging the hole”. This function is achieved by using fire collars recommended by the manufacturers. Plastic materials, which are highly sensitive to heat, will not withstand fire, and will not remain in place, even in the case of a contained fire. As shown by laboratory tests in Germany, if the fire collars are not activated, particularly when installed under the fire compartment, they significantly increase the risk of the fire spreading downwards in a multi-storey building. When some types of plastic material (e.g. HDPE and Polypropylene) are exposed to fire they generate molten droplets, which could potentially spread a fire down through the building.

Exposed to fire, plastic material releases toxic fumes and gases, which beyond a certain amount may be fatal to the people inhaling them.

Choosing PAM Cast Iron Systems means guaranteeing the safety of people and property. 

 

 

 

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