Durability

Durability
Technical assistance

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10 YEARS WARRANTY

New 10 years warranty on PAM Cast Iron drainage systems will ensure a full decade serenity for your construction. Peace of Mind for building lifespan.

This is made possible thanks to the acknowledged durability of PAM cast iron pipes, fittings and couplings, as well as their high level of quality, always adapted to usage changes: robustness in the installation, temperature variations, increased aggressiveness of domestic effluents, among many other benefits.

PAM Soil & Drain BU warrants its Building gravity drainage systems against defects in materials and workmanship when installed, used and maintained in accordance with local code of practices and PAM specifications.

10 YEARS WARRANTY

New 10 years warranty on PAM Cast Iron drainage systems will ensure a full decade serenity for your construction. Peace of Mind for building lifespan.

This is made possible thanks to the acknowledged durability of PAM cast iron pipes, fittings and couplings, as well as their high level of quality, always adapted to usage changes: robustness in the installation, temperature variations, increased aggressiveness of domestic effluents, among many other benefits.

PAM Soil & Drain BU warrants its Building gravity drainage systems against defects in materials and workmanship when installed, used and maintained in accordance with local code of practices and PAM specifications.

ROBUSTNESS AND MECHANICAL STRENGTH

Pipe system components must withstand hazards before they reach the job site such as accidental impact before and during installation, during storage, handling and transit.

In service, outdoor exposed pipes may be damaged by accidental impacts or vandalism. To avoid breakages, which can be expensive, or minor stress cracks which can have serious consequences in operation, the choice of material should be carefully considered..

Impact strength and crush resistance

Compared with other materials, cast iron provides much better impact resistance and is highly recommended everywhere pipes may be exposed to mechanical shock (car parks, streets, etc.).

Cast iron is well known for its robustness. The quality of Saint-Gobain PAM products is ensured by careful control of both the metal composition and the manufacturing process. The spinning of pipes in the De Lavaud process, followed by heat treatment, gives these
products outstanding mechanical properties.

The advantages of the De Lavaud process: better mechanical characteristics, superior to the requirements of EN 877*

  • > Very good resistance to crushing.
  • > Increased impact resistance.
  • > The pipe is more resistant to mechanical stress such as bending and compression.
  • > For installers, installation is more comfortable and on-site handling is facilitated. Cutting pipes is easier, the slices are sharp. The set-up is therefore simpler and faster.

 

The Pipes Saint-Gobain PAM process Others EN 877 requirements
Tensile Strength on samples in MPa
(average value)
300 270 200 minimum
Ring Crush Strength in MPa
(average value, DN 100 pipes)
450 360 350 minimum
Brinnell Surface Hardness in HB degree
(average value)
220 245 260 maximum

 

These results indicate greater resistance to impacts and crushing, easier machining and cutting. This also means the products are easier to install on job sites.

*Key mechanical characteristics required by standard EN 877 are checked by three tests, carried out on pipes when coming out of the heat treatment furnace to assess tensile strength, ring crush resistance and hardness. In addition, operators have opted to perform a further test which provides a good indication of the heat treatment quality: impact test.

DE LAVAUD PROCESS

In this process, a constant flow of molten metal at a perfectly controlled temperature and composition is gradually put into a steel mould rotating at high speed.


The mould external wall is cooled by circulating water and the evenly distributed molten metal cools on contact with the wall before extraction. The process is characterized by quick cooling which gives a finer solidification matrix and thus a more homogeneous metallurgical structure.

The spun pipes are placed and rotated in a heat treatment furnace at 950°C and then gradually cooled again. This step is essential to the process as it transforms the cast iron’s metallurgical structure.

The reduction in iron carbides and the increase in ferrite content considerably improve the mechanical properties of cast iron and reduce its surface hardness. The graphite of the cast iron resulting from the Saint-Gobain PAM process forms  clustered graphite, halfway between lamellar and ductile iron.

DE LAVAUD PROCESS

In this process, a constant flow of molten metal at a perfectly controlled temperature and composition is gradually put into a steel mould rotating at high speed.


The mould external wall is cooled by circulating water and the evenly distributed molten metal cools on contact with the wall before extraction. The process is characterized by quick cooling which gives a finer solidification matrix and thus a more homogeneous metallurgical structure.

The spun pipes are placed and rotated in a heat treatment furnace at 950°C and then gradually cooled again. This step is essential to the process as it transforms the cast iron’s metallurgical structure.

The reduction in iron carbides and the increase in ferrite content considerably improve the mechanical properties of cast iron and reduce its surface hardness. The graphite of the cast iron resulting from the Saint-Gobain PAM process forms  clustered graphite, halfway between lamellar and ductile iron.

RESISTANCE TO THERMAL EXPANSION

Most solids expand when heated and are liable to elongate under temperature increases. For pipe systems made of materials that are subjected to high levels of thermal expansion, precautions must be taken at the design stage.


Cast iron, which expands very little, does not require specific bracketing or expansion collars. It makes the specifiers’ design work easier and avoids extra costs at the installation stage.

RESISTANCE TO THERMAL EXPANSION

Most solids expand when heated and are liable to elongate under temperature increases. For pipe systems made of materials that are subjected to high levels of thermal expansion, precautions must be taken at the design stage.


Cast iron, which expands very little, does not require specific bracketing or expansion collars. It makes the specifiers’ design work easier and avoids extra costs at the installation stage.

Thermal expansion coefficient of cast iron and other materials

The thermal expansion coefficient for cast iron – 0.01 mm/m. °C – is very low and very similar to that of steel and concrete; the building and pipe systems will move and expand together.

 

Thermal expansion

For cast iron, the bracketing system is designed to only carry the weight of the pipe and its content, which makes the designers’ work easier. Plastic pipes, however, expand considerably with increasing temperature.


Their bracketing system must be designed and adapted accordingly, as it can significantly affect the pipework’s stability and performance over time.

WATERTIGHTNESS

Sanitary drainage systems, whether exposed or not, must remain watertight over time. Any defects can cause serious damage, leaks, dripping or slow permeation and generate costly repairs, and disruption. Saint-Gobain PAM cast iron mechanical assemblies are designed to easily achieve instant watertightness and are not dependent on process control (gluing or welding, etc.).

Watertightness of cast iron systems

Cast iron is a dense and non-porous material. Cast iron pipe systems are watertight and impervious.


Straight and rigid cast iron components are assembled using metal couplings fitted with elastomer gaskets which ensure the system is completely watertight.

Assemblies benefit from a conventional approach. Put together with only simple tools, they allow installation tolerance with no risk of leaks.

This ease of installation ensures the specified performance is always obtained, even in adverse conditions, unlike with plastics when either gluing or welding can be affected by installation hazards (ambient conditions such as temperature or damp), or when personnel with special skills are required.

Watertightness of cast iron systems

Cast iron is a dense and non-porous material. Cast iron pipe systems are watertight and impervious.


Straight and rigid cast iron components are assembled using metal couplings fitted with elastomer gaskets which ensure the system is completely watertight.

Assemblies benefit from a conventional approach. Put together with only simple tools, they allow installation tolerance with no risk of leaks.

This ease of installation ensures the specified performance is always obtained, even in adverse conditions, unlike with plastics when either gluing or welding can be affected by installation hazards (ambient conditions such as temperature or damp), or when personnel with special skills are required.

Watertightness over time

Failure of watertightness can occur on drainage systems in operation due to breaks, misalignments, crushes or cracks. Long-lasting watertightness depends on two main factors:

 

  • > No deterioration of pipes: Cast iron is highly resistant to ovality. Their specified mechanical properties and stability enable cast iron systems to withstand operating stresses extremely well.
     
  • > No deterioration of assemblies: Elastomers are carefully selected for the long-term stability of their physico-chemical characteristics to ensure the lasting watertightness of the rubber gaskets.

Watertightness over time

Failure of watertightness can occur on drainage systems in operation due to breaks, misalignments, crushes or cracks. Long-lasting watertightness depends on two main factors:

 

  • > No deterioration of pipes: Cast iron is highly resistant to ovality. Their specified mechanical properties and stability enable cast iron systems to withstand operating stresses extremely well.
     
  • > No deterioration of assemblies: Elastomers are carefully selected for the long-term stability of their physico-chemical characteristics to ensure the lasting watertightness of the rubber gaskets.

Watertightness and maintenance

Blockages can sometimes occur in drainage networks, therefore the pipework materials must be resistant so that maintenance is easy. The S and Plus systems can withstand all normal maintenance processes, including high-pressure jetting, without being damaged. They have undergone a high-pressure test according to Swiss standard SN 592 012.


The robustness and dimensional stability of cast iron components along with the careful selection of elastomer ensure pipe installations are high-performance and have a long service life.

INTERNAL PRESSURE RESISTANCE

Internal overpressure in drainage networks rarely occurs and is always accidental. Thrust efforts in the overloaded sections have to be addressed to guarantee both watertightnessand mechanical stability.

As the robust cast iron components can withstand any pressure hazard, the couplings will be subjected to the strain. The quality of the couplings and their careful selection according to their field of use will prevent misalignment or disconnection of the pipework.

AGEING BEHAVIOR

As components that are integrated in buildings, wastewater and rainwater drainage systems must remain in a serviceable condition over the long term despite adverse operating conditions.

Ageing refers to any gradual, irreversible change in a material’s structure and/or composition, liable to affect its behavior or serviceability.


When a material is selected, the stability of its properties ensures operational reliability over time.

Stability of cast iron mechanical properties

The ageing of a material may be due to its own instability, environmental or chemical stresses, mechanical strains, or a combination of any of those causes.


It is an established fact that cast iron offers long service, owing in particular to the stability of its mechanical properties over time.


Cast iron is not sensitive to thermal ageing

 

  • - Its mechanical strength remains stable.
  • - Its thermal expansion is very low compared to plastics.
  • - Cast iron pipe systems are not liable to creep at operating temperatures.

Cast iron does not deform under mechanical strain

 

  • - Its ring stiffness (cold measurement) around 700 kN.m is not affected by temperature and is 87 times that of PVC pipes. It is highly valued for buried pipework.
  • -  Its longitudinal stiffness, which facilitates bracketing and protects the water stream in horizontal sections, remains intact. Its Young’s modulus of elasticity is from 80 to 120 GPa vs 2 to 5 GPa for PVC.
  • -  Cast iron’s tensile strength is 8 times that of PVC: 200 MPa vs 25 (residual resistance, after 50 years according to the standards). This property is very important in case of network overloading.

The properties of cast iron ensure the stability of the systems and long-lasting operational safety.

 

Resistance to climatic stresses

The properties of materials are extremely important when they are stored in or exposed to adverse conditions (extended exposure to ultraviolet light or wide-ranging temperature variations, etc.). Cast iron undergoes no structural modification under climatic stresses

 

Stability of cast iron mechanical properties

The ageing of a material may be due to its own instability, environmental or chemical stresses, mechanical strains, or a combination of any of those causes.


It is an established fact that cast iron offers long service, owing in particular to the stability of its mechanical properties over time.


Cast iron is not sensitive to thermal ageing

 

  • - Its mechanical strength remains stable.
  • - Its thermal expansion is very low compared to plastics.
  • - Cast iron pipe systems are not liable to creep at operating temperatures.

Cast iron does not deform under mechanical strain

 

  • - Its ring stiffness (cold measurement) around 700 kN.m is not affected by temperature and is 87 times that of PVC pipes. It is highly valued for buried pipework.
  • -  Its longitudinal stiffness, which facilitates bracketing and protects the water stream in horizontal sections, remains intact. Its Young’s modulus of elasticity is from 80 to 120 GPa vs 2 to 5 GPa for PVC.
  • -  Cast iron’s tensile strength is 8 times that of PVC: 200 MPa vs 25 (residual resistance, after 50 years according to the standards). This property is very important in case of network overloading.

The properties of cast iron ensure the stability of the systems and long-lasting operational safety.

 

Resistance to climatic stresses

The properties of materials are extremely important when they are stored in or exposed to adverse conditions (extended exposure to ultraviolet light or wide-ranging temperature variations, etc.). Cast iron undergoes no structural modification under climatic stresses

 

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DURABILITY AGEING OF POLYMERS

Deterioration of mechanical properties under temperature stress

Under the effect of temperature, plastics can suffer two kinds of deterioration, including at operating temperatures:

 

  • - Creeping is an irreversible elongation under the combined action of both temperature and a significant mechanical strain. Plastic pipe systems like PVC or HDPE are particularly sensitive; in the horizontal sections, they can bend between two support brackets under their own weight.
  • - Modification of the elastic limit: most plastic materials will soften when exposed to a temperature increase. With a decrease in temperature, however, they crystallise. PVC, for example, becomes rigid and may crack under mechanical strain - its operating temperature range is generally between -20°C and 80°C, but depending on its nature, the range can be much narrower.

Photochemical ageing


Depending on their nature, climatic stresses (such as solar radiation, damp or heat) will cause photochemical ageing to plastic materials of varying severity.
They may merely alter their surface finish, or they may also deeply modify their mechanical properties and thus adversely affect their serviceability.


The same can happen as a result of a slow chemical attack by solvents or even in an aqueous medium.